Claude Walker | Bicentennial-By-Buttons



Late 1700s  Creeks and other tribes set up villages in northern Florida; many will eventually become known as Seminoles

1804  Osceola born in Alabama

1812  Georgia militia volunteers attack Florida Indian villages, Florida Indians raid Georgia plantations, civil war brewing among Creek Indians

1813  Creek War spurs Indian exodus from Alabama to Florida

March 27, 1814  Battle of Horseshoe Bend, Alabama. Jackson's troops kill 800 warriors; capture 350 women and children

August 9, 1814  Fort Jackson Treaty forces Creeks to give up most land

July 17, 1816  The "Watering Party Incident" on the Apalachicola

July 27, 1816  Negro Fort destroyed

February 24, 1817  Garrett Family Massacre

Nov. 21-23, 1817  Fowltown skirmish; 1st Seminole War begins

November 30, 1817  Scott Massacre; Elizabeth Stewart captured

March 12, 1818  Jackson begins invasion of Spain's Florida

April 7, 1818  Jackson occupies Spain's Fort Marks

February 22, 1819  Adams-Onís Treaty: Spain cedes Florida to U.S.


September, 1823  Treaty of Moultrie Creek. Seminoles will relocate to central Florida reservation

1824  Fort Brooke built near Tampa Bay

1826  Seminole delegation visits Washington D.C.

1827  Fort King built in what is now Ocala


May 28,1830  Congress passes President Jackson's Indian Removal Act

March 18, 1831  Landmark U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia

1831-32  The Choctaw become the first southeastern tribe to relocate

May 9, 1832  Treaty of Payne's Landing. Seminoles agree to inspect reservation in Arkansas Territory

June, 1835  Wiley Thompson puts Osceola in chains

August, 1835  Pvt. Dalton killed while carrying mail

November, 1835  Osceola kills Charley Emathla as the chief is about to head West

December 25, 1835  Uprising! 21 sugar plantations burned

December 28, 1835  Wiley Thompson's shooting and the Dade Massacre

December 31, 1835  Battle of Withlacoochee

Feb-March, 1836  Battle at Camp Izard

November 21, 1836  Battle of Wahoo Swamp; Seminoles kill Maj. David Moniac, first Native American West Point graduate

March 6, 1837  "The Capitulation": Some chiefs agree to give up and move West

June 2, 1837  Osceola and Abiaka raid detention camp; free 700 Indians awaiting transit to Arkansas Territory

October 21, 1837  Osceola captured under false flag of truce

December 19, 1837  Jumper and his band surrender

December 25, 1837  Battle of Lake Okeechobee

January 15, 1938  Powell's Battle at Loxahatchee

January 24, 1838  Battle of Loxahatchee

January 31, 1838  Osceola dies in prison

June 23, 1839  Attack at Caloosahatchee trading post


January, 1840  Bloodhounds are imported from Cuba to track Seminoles

August 7, 1840  Chaikaika raids Indian Key; kills botanist and family

December 4, 1840  Lt. Col. Harney captures & executes Chakaika

1841  Halleck Tustenuggee attacks wagon train, plantations, homes

April, 1842  Last battle of 2nd Seminole War near Peliklakaha. Halleck Tustenuggee captured

May 10, 1842  Pres. Tyler ends military actions against Seminoles. All troops leave by August

1849  Chief Micanopy dies. Council passes over his nephew Coacoochee in favor of Jumper

November, 1849  Coacoochee & Juan Caballo lead 300 on 9-month trek to Mexico. They set up villages around Nacimiento


1852  Billy Bowlegs meets President Fillmore

December, 1855  Raid on Bowlegs plantation and counterattack. 3rd Seminole War underway

March, 1856  Seminoles attack Sarasota home of Florida State Senate President

May, 1856  Seminoles attack wagon train and construction workers at Jupiter lighthouse

June, 1856  U.S. troops kill Chief Oscen Tustenuggee; war shifts south

August, 1856  U.S. offers new deal: autonomy from Creeks and bigger annuity

1857-58  Skirmishes across Florida

1858  Bowlegs agrees to leave. End of 3rd Seminole War. Abiaka and his followers hide in the Big Cypress Swamp

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